Monday, May 23, 2011

CCIE SP v3 Sample Lab

Vincent Zhou had published the CCIE SP v3 Sample LAB's in Cisco Learning Network.

There are total 8 part which describe the new CCIE SP v3 LAB senario & the Question which help us for preparing the CCIE SP LAB.

Click the below link : CCIE SP v3 Sample LAB

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

How to Save Configuration in Cisco IOS-On-UNIX (IOU)

In my earlier post you saw how to run CISCO IOU on VMware machine, But the problem is that you can't save configuration because you are running CISCO IOU from Live CD & when you will restart the VMware machine then the configuration will be removed .

Here i am going to explain you how to save the configuration in CISCO IOU , so that you can have that configured topology any time when ever you want , So now you can review the configuration & use the old configured topology for you LAB practice.

The requirement to save configuration is the same one that we using for LIVE CD, Here we are going to use the Ubuntu OS for GUI mode, But how know the CLI he can go with CLI mode without having Ubuntu OS.

1] Download the Ubuntu OS & install in VMware machine.
2] Run VMware machine with the CISCO IOU TS1 & TS2 Live CD with auto mount option.

3] Use "df" Command to view disk usage.You will get below screen.

Here you will see the "/media/sda1" which is your hard drive that is allocated to Ubuntu OS.

4] To save the configuration we have to copy the following files from CD to hard drive.
    Below files need to copy from CD to Hard drive.


5] Use the below command to create folder in sda1 so that we can copy the flies from CD to hard drive folder.

#mkdir IOU

6] Use below command to copy the files from CD to Hard Drive & verify.

#cp -r * /media/sda1/home/xyz/IOU_1

 xyz        ==> Home folder of Ubuntu OS.
IOU_1   ==> Folder that we create to copy files from CD to Hard drive.

7] Now all required files are copied to Hard drive & when ever you want to run IOU then you should boot with live CD & then go to home folder then run & instructed in LIVE CD.


8] Now you can telnet to routers & save the configuration. All configuration is saved in your Ubuntu hard drive . If you want to see you can login to Ubuntu & enjoy !!!!!

Note : The IOU will not run from Ubuntu  ,To run IOU you have boot from LIVE CD & then go to hard drive folder where you had copied & then run the TS1 & TS2 Topology.


Saturday, May 7, 2011

Cisco Simulator : Cisco IOS-On-UNIX (Cisco IOU)

Cisco Learning Labs for routing and switching are real bundles of practice labs, powered by Cisco IOS Software on UNIX.

Cisco IOS-On-UNIX is a Cisco simulator, Cisco use IOU for IOS testing & CCIE R&S Trouble shooting. Also Cisco Conduct CCIE R&S Trouble shotting on Cisco IOS-On-UNIX.

Cisco IOS-On-UNIX is cisco internal simulator used by internal employ.

Now Cisco IOU has been leaked & available on internet. You can download the Cisco IOS-On-UNIX for CCIE LAB practice.

Cisco IOS-On-UNIX support all feature & it come with advance enterprise IOS.

Also Cisco has now announce officially Cisco Learning LAB where you can buy Cisco Rental LAB for preparation of CCIE R&S or MPLS LABS.

From Below link you will know more about Cisco IOS-On-UNIX  

1] Cisco IOU -- Part 1
2] Cisco IOU -- Part 2
3] Cisco IOU -- Part 3
4] Cisco IOU -- Part 4
5] Cisco IOU -- Part 5

Cisco IOU -- Part 5

How you can Telnet the Cisco IOU routes ?

You can telnet all router that you are running in Cisco IOU. Please follow the below steps :-

Check the IP address of VMware machine with "ifconfig" command. VMware machine will automatically get IP address because of DHCP, DHCP is enable in VMware so when ever you will run VMware machine the you will get IP address. (Default) 

For example your IP address is then open Putty or Telnet or use SecureCRT to do telnet.
You will do telnet to IP address : "telnet 2001 "  2001 is the port number.

So you will get R1 prompt , In this way yo can start telnet using port number till 2030 in TS1 & TS2.

For Example : 

"telnet 2001 "
"telnet 2002 "
"telnet 2003 "
"telnet 2004 "  

Use Secure CRT to save the session , So that you can use those session any time .

Note : In Cisco IOU you will not able to save the configuration because you are running topology in LIVE CD, In up coming post i will show you how to save the configuration in Cisco IOU for TS1 & TS2 or any other.

Cisco IOU -- Part 4

How to run Cisco IOU on your machine ?

@ Below are the link from where you can download the Cisco IOU .
@ Install the VMware 
@ Create machine & allocate at least 2GB Ram.( Don't install any OS in that )
@ From below link you will get ISO image for Cisco IOU & boot that machine with this image.
@ You will see that machine will start with Linux OS 
@ Then you will get ROOT prompt & then type "ls" command to view file in root directory.
@ To start TS1 or TS2 topology you can type blow command : 

TS1#one  ====> " Type one to start the topology"
TS2#two   ====> " Type two to start the topology"

Type "off" to turn off the routers.

Please ignore thet below error : 

Waitting on port 2030
Process Id For child is 1681,parent is 1679
UNIX ERR:tcgetattr:Invalid argument

You can download the Cisco IOU from below links with different topology : 

1] Cisco IOU LiveCD v1  ===> 6 Routers  

2] Cisco IOU CCIE v4 TS 1 & 2 Rack LiveCD v2.0 == > Used for Troubleshooting in CCIE R&S Lab

In v2.0 you can have two topology i.e. TS1 & TS2 .
TS1 : This is troubleshooting ready topology that used in CCIE R&S Lab exam.
TS2 : This is troubleshooting ready topology that used in CCIE R&S Lab exam.

Below are the topology diagram for TS1 & TS2

TS 1 Topology : 25+ routers 

TS 2 Topology : 25+ routers

Note : If you are not able to start all router then increase the RAM.

Cisco IOU -- Part 3

Here’s a simple NETMAP file:

101:18 102:2

There are two routers represented here, identified by “application ID” values 101 and 102 (which you pass to the IOU images when starting them up).

The first and last lines represent an interface which is connected to nothing. The second line shows that the interface on 101 identified by 18 is connected to the interface on 102 identified by 2. Where do these numbers come from you ask?

Unlike Dynamips/Dynagen, “NETMAP” does not use interface names but, rather, interface IDs. The IDs are not tied to a specific interface type (e.g. Serial or Ethernet). When launching an IOU instance, you can specify (via the command-line) which interfaces you want and how many. The ID used for Serial1/2 and Ethernet1/2 would be the same and, as such, it’s impossible to have both of those interfaces in an single instance.

To calculate the ID used by “interface x/y”, you would use the following formula:

id = x + (y * 16)


    interface 0/0 = 0
    interface 0/3 = 48
    interface 1/2 = 33
    interface 12/1 = 28

Based on this formula, we can see that in the second line of the example NETMAP file, 101′s interface 2/1 is connected to 102′s interface 2/0.

Using this formula (and the resulting values), it should be fairly easily to construct your own NETMAP files from scratch.

Note that you can’t, unfortunately, “bridge” an IOU instance to a physical network without the use of another piece of software named “IOUlive”

Cisco IOU -- Part 2

Cisco IOU has been cracked by & you can refer the for more detail.

Here i will introduce you with Cisco IOU which will help you for your CCIE R&S Exam.

Over the internet you will get different version of Cisco IOU but all IOU are same as the original one , The difference is the topology.

You can modify the topology by editing the NETMAP file . NETMAP file is the same file that we use in GNS. ( Please see How to Create NETMAP in other post ) 
In IOU you can get Linux Base IOS, Below are the file name of Cisco IOS 

1] i86bi_linux-adventerprisek9-ms
2] i86bi_linux-adventerprisek9-ms

In advance enterprise IOS you will get all feature that you get in Cisco 7200 series router with K9 image ot Adv IP Base IOS.

Using GNS is good but when you what to run 20 or 30 router then it will create problem.
GNS is a emulator that emulate the hardware with original IOS so it require more CPU.

If you want to run 20+ router in GNS then it will kill your CPU. So now you can go with Cisco IOU .

In Cisco IOU you can 50+ routers or may more.( Req RAM not CPU )

In up coming post i will let you know : 

1] How to run Cisco IOU 
2] How to Save Configuration 
3] And many more ...



Cisco IOU -- Part 1

What is Cisco IOU ?

          From the Cisco Engineering Education web site (a long time ago):
IOS on Unix (IOU) is a fully working version of IOS that runs as a user mode UNIX (Solaris) process. IOU is built as a native Solaris image and run just like any other program. IOU supports all platform independent protocols and features.

What operating systems does IOU run on?

It is my understanding that, initially, IOU was Solaris (SPARC) only. Nowadays, however, there are also builds for OS X and Linux. Similar to dynamips, IOU allows you to build out a network topology on a computer, without the need for physical routers. This is useful for validating designs, proof-of-concept testing, and certification self-study.


Is this legal?

Usage of IOU outside of Cisco (and trusted partners) is a potentially legal gray area. From an old internal-only Cisco web page:
Cisco IOS on Unix is a tool intended for internal use only. Distribution of IOU images to customers or external persons, or discussion of IOU with customers or external persons, is prohibited. Don’t do it or we’ll have to come and kill you.

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

EVC: Ethernet Virtual Circuits – Part 2

As we saw the basic of EVC in my earlier post EVC: Ethernet Virtual Circuits – Part 1 & here we will dig some more to know about EVC.

1] What is Ethernet Flow point (EPF)? : - EPF is a Service Instance which classifies frames
     belongs to particular Ethernet service & also defines & applies feature,behavior & forwarding action.

2] Ethernet Virtual Circuit (EVC): - EVC is management plane containers which represents
    globally & also do 1-toMany mapping for EVC to EPF.

3] Bridge Domain (BD): - BD is a broadcast domain local to that device.

EVC Bridge Domain: EVC bridges decouple VLAN from broadcast domain.
  • VLAN are treated as encapsulation on a wire.
  • VLAN on a wire are mapped to internal bridge domain.
  • Result : Per – Port VLAN Significance.

Flexible Service Mapping
  • Service Instance construct Layer 2 Flow on Ethernet Interface
  • Single Tagged
  • Double Tagged
  • Header / Payload
Service Instance Mapping is specified by following command :

Encap do1q 100 : match any frame with Outer Tag equal to 100

Encap dot1q 100 sec 200 : match any frame with outer tag as 100 and second tag as 200

Encap Default : Service Instance with default encapsulation matches all frame otherwise unmatched by any other S-I on the same port.

Advance Frame Manipulation or VLAN Tag Manipulation
  • PUSH Operation : Add one VLAN Tag or Two VLAN Tag
  • POP Operation : Remove One VLAN Tag or Two VLAN Tag
  • Translation Operation :
         1:1 VLAN Translation
         1:2 VLAN Translation
         2:1 VLAN Translation
         2:2 VLAN Translation

The Biggest advantage on EVC is to support multiple services per physical port . That means you can have multiple service under one physical port.
  • Local Connect
  • EoMPLS ( xconnect)
  • L2 Multipoint Bridge
  • L2 Multipoint Bridge ( VPLS , SVI-Based EoMPLS)
  • L2 Point to multipoint bridge
  • L3 Termination

EVC: Ethernet Virtual Circuits – Part 1

Ethernet Virtual Circuits (EVC)

@ Support mix of Layer 2 & Layer 3 Services on same physical port.

@ Concurrent support of different flavors of Layer 2 Services i.e. Point –to- Point &
     Point-to Multipoint. ( E-Line , E-LAN, E-Tree)

@ Emerging Standard: IEEE 802.1ad, IEEE 802.1ah

@ EPF: Ethernet Flow Point i.e. Transport agnostic abstraction of an Ethernet.

@ Flexible Service Mapping

Concept & Terminology

@Three Type of EVC:

• Point –to- Point (E- LINE)

• Point-to Multipoint (E-LAN)

• Rooted Multipoint (E-TREE)

 @ Ethernet Virtual Connection or Circuit

 @ Conceptual Visualization of an Ethernet

Two Understand the EVC Building Block below terms or concept need to know:

@ Ethernet Flow Point (EFP): Transport agnostic abstraction of an Ethernet services

@ Ethernet Virtual Circuit (EVC): Local Object or container for service parameter.

@ Bridge Domain (BD): Ethernet Broadcast domain.

Monday, January 3, 2011


In MPLS Lable  we come with the terms know as PUSH , POP & SWAP & always we get confuse with there function.

Here is the brief of  PUSH , POP & SWAP :

1] PUSH  :  Adding a Lable to Incomming Packet and also aka Lable imposition
2] SWAP :  Replace the lable of incomming packet
3] POP    :  Remove the lable from outgoing packet and also aka Lable disposition.